Tag: 上海千花网TZ

first_imgPHYSICSStudies of non-hydrodynamic processes in inertial confinement fusion implosions on OMEGA and the National Ignition FacilityHans Rinderknecht Fat is the key to emulsions like mayonnaise. So how do you make them low-fat but still creamy? Read more … CHEMISTRYCarbon nanofibers’ flammability and explosionJiaqi Zhang Drug abuse recovery requires a social network. But how you interact with the network matters. Read more … Life is stressful for plants. It turns out that extra-small proteins help them chill. Read more … SOCIAL SCIENCEThe “discovery” of the Pacific: International relationships within the Spanish oceanic continentDavid Manzano Cosano Ever wonder how biologists use RNA sequencing from cytoplasm to decode a cell’s stress response? Or how about how astronomers use heterodyne arrays with superconducting mixers to observe the birth of stars? Rather than reading a paper about it, why not watch a dance? A ballet and a modern dance on those very topics have made it into the finals of this year’s “Dance Your Ph.D.” contest.It was a tight race among this year’s 21 Ph.D. dance submissions. The previous winners of the contest scored each of them on their scientific and artistic merits, and these 12 finalists made the cut. Now it’s a dance-off between the sciences, including a tango based on robot collision avoidance, an acrobatic spectacle based on soil ecology, and, in one of the most meta Ph.D. dances ever, a hip-hop dance about the anthropology of hip-hop.A panel of esteemed scientists, artists, and educators are judging the finalists now to choose the winners.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The winners—and audience favorite—will be announced on 3 November.CHEMISTRYHigh pressure homogenisation for emulsions fat reductionSaioa Alvarez How can you build a motor so small that it runs inside a cell? Read more … In the scramble among European empires to colonize the Pacific Ocean, science played a key role. Read more … PHYSICSTime-critical cooperative path following of multiple multirotors UAVsVenanzio Cichella SOCIAL SCIENCEPerforming difference and diversity through embodiment and narrative: An ethnography of hip hop dancers in New York, Osaka, and PerthLucas Marie A heart attack not only scars your heart. It actually scars your genome. Read more … BIOLOGYEpigenetics of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion-injuryIna Kirmescenter_img SOCIAL SCIENCEPeer support groups for substance misuse: Understanding engagement with the groupAlina Sotskova Stars are being born throughout the galaxy, but observing them through their soupy clouds is tricky. Read more … Tornadoes may not be 100% bad after all, at least for tree reproduction. Read more … BIOLOGYAlterations to plant-soil feedbacks after severe tornado disturbanceUma Nagendra Carbon nanofibers don’t tend to explode. That is, until iron gets involved. Read more … Dancing close to other people is easy for humans, very hard for robots. Read more … PHYSICSHeterodyne arrays for terahertz astronomyJenna Kloosterman Get small atoms hot and crowded enough and you get fusion. But atoms behave strangely. Read more … CHEMISTRYPeptide in motionClaudia Poloni BIOLOGYUnravelling the biological role of novel, stress-induced peptides in Arabidopsis thalianaPatrizia Tavormina What is hip hop culture? How is it evolving in different contexts around the world? Read more …last_img read more

first_imgHave you ever wondered why a strange piece of music can feel familiar—how it is, for example, that you can predict the next beat even though you’ve never heard the song before? Music everywhere seems to share some “universals,” from the scales it uses to the rhythms it employs. Now, scientists have shown for the first time that people without any musical training also create songs using predictable musical beats, suggesting that humans are hardwired to respond to—and produce—certain features of music.“This is an excellent and elegant paper,” says Patrick Savage, an ethnomusicologist at the Tokyo University of the Arts who was not involved in the study. “[It] shows that even musical evolution obeys some general rules [similar] to the kind that govern biological evolution.”Last year, Savage and colleagues traced that evolution by addressing a fundamental question: What aspects of music are consistent across cultures? They analyzed hundreds of musical recordings from around the world and identified 18 features that were widely shared across nine regions, including six related to rhythm. These “rhythmic universals” included a steady beat, two- or three-beat rhythms (like those in marches and waltzes), a preference for two-beat rhythms, regular weak and strong beats, a limited number of beat patterns per song, and the use of those patterns to create motifs, or riffs. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) “That was a really remarkable job they did,” says Andrea Ravignani, a cognitive scientist at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Belgium. “[It convinced me that] the time was ripe to investigate this issue of music evolution and music universals in a more empirical way.”In the new study, Ravignani and his colleagues focused on the six consistent features identified by Savage’s team. They gathered up 48 nonmusicians from the University of Edinburgh and asked them to play a mildly embarrassing game of telephone. Groups of eight students had to repeat a series of 12 random beats generated by a computer that adhered to none of the the six universals. The first person in each group tried to imitate the computer’s “music,” the next person tried to imitate the drumming of the first, and so on. By the time the final person laid down their riffs, something remarkable happened: The random beats had transformed into easy-to-learn, highly structured patterns. What’s more, those patterns reflected all six universals, Ravignani and his team write online today in Nature Human Behavior.“That was pretty amazing,” Ravignani says. “In a nutshell, we could find that what you get in the lab … exhibits exactly the same features of the world music.”But do those similarities arise from biology, or from culture? Even if you aren’t a musician, your exposure to music as an adult is “massive,” writes William Tecumseh Sherman Fitch III, an evolutionary biologist and cognitive scientist at the University of Vienna, in an accompanying perspective. But he adds that although our musical preferences might not be “hard-coded” into the human genome, biology may still set the stage for later cultural selection: “Humans may have a … propensity to structure acoustic input in certain ways, leading over time to a cultural emergence of universals.”Ravignani agrees, citing working memory as one example of a biological constraint that could shape our musical preferences. If working memory can process just five to seven elements at a time, as many scientists say, it would be impossible for our minds to keep track of 12 beats in any given moment. But if we transform those beats into regular groupings of smaller, repeating elements, then we should be able to compress the information to fit the limited capacity of our working memory. “This is the best working hypothesis we have,” says Ravignani, who adds that the biological hypothesis “dovetails nicely” with other research in cognitive science and psychology.To reduce the influence of musical exposure, Ravignani is preparing to redo the experiment with subjects from different regions of India, China, Russia, Europe, and Africa. Ideally, those subjects would include people from isolated indigenous cultures that are not exposed to Western pop music, Savage says. After that, Ravignani’s next project is even more ambitious: to repeat the process with nonhuman animals. Figuring out how chimpanzees or harbor seals—some of the few species that can synchronize to a beat—transmit music might help us reconstruct the early steps in our evolution of musical cognition, he says, perhaps bringing us closer to understanding both how and why we create music as we do. Emailcenter_img Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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